In the starchy food family, I ask for bread. Many people cannot imagine their meal without it: it satisfies the biggest appetites. White, bis, with cereals or wholegrain… it is still necessary to know the varieties offered and to know how to take advantage of their complementarity. The Ministry of Health reminds you first of all that if there are no specific recommendations on the amount of bread to consume per meal, ” this amount must, above all, be modulated according to the other starchy foods and cereal-based products (pies, ready-to-eat cereals) consumed during the day. In its “food guide for all”, the latter, however, recommends favoring wholegrain or rye bread, yeast or even cereals, instead of white bread (the famous baguette) or Viennese bread. In fact, their composition is quite similar: water, flour, salt and yeast, or sour dough.
Specifically, the choice will be made in terms of the type of flour used and the choice between yeast and yeast, by two elements that will make all the difference from a nutritional point of view: the glycemic index (GI) and fiber. As the association France Assos Santé explains, “ the glycemic index is measured on a scale from 0 to 100. The higher it is, the more carbohydrates contained in the foods you eat pass into your blood. Thus, the GI is a calculation based on the curve of the level of carbohydrates in the blood tested after the ingestion of this or that food: it is a classification criterion for foods containing carbohydrates, based on their effects on blood glucose during the 2 hours following ingestion. . This is always given as a fixed value, when in reality it varies according to various factors such as maturity (the more ripe a fruit, the higher its GI), doneness (the longer the food is cooked, the higher the GI is) or the food context (whether the food is eaten alone or in a meal with other foods).
Why is it better to choose fiber-rich bread?
Fiber, on the other hand, is not a specific component, but a complex group of various components found in plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes. In simple terms, fiber can be defined as carbohydrates that cannot be fully digested in our gut. Their destination is located further down, in the colon, where they contribute to the regulation of intestinal transit and, therefore, appetite, but they also have other very important health effects. In particular, they help nourish our gut microbiota, fight excess cholesterol and are, above all, essential for regulating blood sugar. There are two types of fiber: insoluble fiber present in cereal-based products, especially whole grains, and soluble fiber present mainly in fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals. To take advantage of its benefits, the National Health Nutrition Program recommends consuming 30 grams per day.
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And this in particular through the consumption of bread whose nutritional value results, in part, from the flour used in its composition, since the fiber content depends on the type of flour. In a dedicated information point, UFC Que Choisir highlights that the classification of flours depends on the extraction rate of the wheat and, therefore, the amount of mineral matter that remains in the flour. White, semi-complete, complete, wholemeal flour… the longer the grain envelope is kept, the less refined the flour (indicated with the letter T followed by a number). ” In T150 flour, the grain is whole with its envelopes and its germ. It is the basis of wholemeal bread. In contrast, common “white” baguettes and breads are made from T55 or T65 flour. Between these two extremes, there are “chicken” flours of the T110 and T80 type, which constitute a compromise between wholemeal flour, whose fiber content does not facilitate dispersion in the intestinal bolus, and excessively refined white flour. observe the organization.
And the sour bread?
As you may have already understood, regular white bread and traditional baguettes, made from refined flours, contain little fiber unlike wholemeal or wholemeal bread, while wholemeal or semi-wholemeal bread is ideal for those who don’t digest well for very large breads. dense. In addition to the degree of refinement of the flour, there remains one final element to take into account in the final choice, as well underlined by the famous Yuka application: sourdough bread or sour dough? “ Unlike baker’s yeast, which is actually a microscopic fungus (not to be confused with the baking powder used to rise in cakes), yeast comes only from substances naturally present in the bread’s composition. In fact, sourdough results from fermentation caused by bacteria present in the envelope of the wheat grain. It will produce lactic fermentation, which is much slower than alcoholic fermentation, which explains its lower use by bakeries. she says.
However, its advantages are numerous, starting with the fact that sourdough bread is more digestible thanks to the lactic bacteria formed during natural fermentation. That’s why “ It is particularly advisable to choose sourdough bread for whole-grain breads which can be more difficult to digest. “, we recommend. Same observation of the UFC-Que Choisir that attests that “the yeast gives more differentiated products, with a light touch of acidity. It promotes digestive tolerance to gluten and improves the assimilation of mineral compounds in the bread. says more digestible usually says with a more adequate glycemic index. Application experts point out that “ the glycemic index of leavened bread is lower than that of leavened bread, around 65 versus over 80 for leavened bread. Sourdough bread will therefore allow for slower diffusion of carbohydrates and therefore limit cravings and the storage of carbohydrates in the form of fat.
It should be noted that if most of the vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber are found in the bran (seed envelope) and therefore more in breads made from whole grains (a bread with spelled or yeast flour can also exist in the whole grain version). ), this benefit, however, has a disadvantage: it is the part that contains the most pesticides. Therefore, it is better to favor the “organic” because the peripheral envelopes of the grain present more risks of contamination by mycotoxins and pesticide residues. This is the recommendation of the UFC-Que Choisir according to which opting for organic in the consumption of unrefined bread allows you to limit chemical pesticides. ” In fact, these flours contain all or part of the grain envelope that concentrates the pesticides. “, says the organization. For fans of white bread, however, the choice should turn to the “tradition” baguette, a name that excludes the use of additives and implies that of a better quality, less refined flour, with a lower GI than chopsticks. common.